NameKing Robert the BRUCE 1st Of Scotland , M
Birth Date11 Jul 1274
Birth PlaceTurnbery Castle, Ayrshire, Scotland
Birth Memoalt: born at Writtle near Chelmsford, England
Death Date7 Jun 1329
Death PlaceCardross, Dumbarton, Dumbartonshire, Scotland
Burial DateJun 1329
Burial PlaceDunfermline, Fife, Scotland
Burial MemoHeart eventually buried at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire.
MotherHeiress Marjorie Of Carrick , F (1254-1292)
Spouses
Birth Dateabt 1277
Birth PlaceKildrummy, Aberdeenshire, Scotland
Death Date12 Dec 1296
Burial DateDec 1296
Burial PlacePaisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland
Burial MemoPaisley Abbey
Marr Date1295
Marr PlaceScotland
ChildrenMarjory , F (1296-1316)
Birth Date1289
Death Date27 Oct 1327
Death PlaceCullen, Banffshire, Scotland
Burial Date1327
Burial PlaceDunfermline, Fife, Scotland
Burial MemoDunfermline Abbey
Birth Dateabt 1284
Birth PlaceConnaught, Ireland
Marr Dateabt 1302
ChildrenDavid , M (1324-1371)
 Matilda , F (~1325-1353)
 Margaret , F (~1326-1346)
 John , M (~1327-~1330)
3UNNAMED , F
Unmarried
ChildrenMargaret , F (~1322->1364)
Notes for King Robert the BRUCE 1st Of Scotland
By the Countess Marjorie, Robert had issue

1. Robert, afterwards King Robert I

2. Edward
3. Thomas, was wounded and taken prisoner by Sir Dougal MacDowat Lochryan, and was brought by him to Carlisle Castle, where he was executed by order of King Edward I, 1306-7.
4. Alexander, suffered the same fate at the same time as his brother. It is said he was a learned man, and had been educated at Cambridge, and was Dean of Glasgow.
5. Sir Nigel, sometimes called Neil, described as miles pulcherrime juventutis. …
6. Isobel. She is generally said to have married Sir Thomas Randolph of Strathdon, Great Chamberlain to Alexander III …
7. Mary. She was taken prison in 1306 with her sister Christine, her sister-in-law, Elizabeth, wife of Kin Robert, and her daughter Marjorie. …
8. Christian / Christina, married, first to Gratney, Earl of Mar and secondly to Christopher de Seton. …
9. Matilda or Maud, married, as his second wife, to Hugh, Earl of Ross, about 1308, and died before 1329.
10. Margaret, married to Sir William de Carlyle. They had a grant from Robert I of the lands of Crumzanstoun.

Source: THE SCOTS PEERAGE, ed. by Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol II, Edinburgh, 1906, pp. 432-5.
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After a turbulent interregnum of upwards of nine years, the Crown was seized by Robert I, de Brus, or ‘The Bruce,’ Earl of Carrick and Lord of Annandale:
born at Writtle, near Chelmsford, 11 July 1274;
chosen one of the guardians of the kingdom 19 August 1299;
assumed the sovereignty and was crowned at Scone 27 March 1306.


He finally achieved the independence of Scotland, and after an eventful reign of twenty-three years died at Cardross 7 June 1329, and was buried at Dunfermline.

(1) He married, first, about 1295, Isabella, daughter of Donald, tenth Earl of Mar, by whom he had an only child:

1. Marjorie, who was married to Walter, High Steward of Scotland. She died 2 March 1315-16, leaving one son, who eventually became king as Robert II.

(2) King Robert married, secondly, in 1302, Elizabeth, daughter of Richard de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, who died at Cullen 26 October 1327, and was buried at Dunfermline, by whom he had:

2. Matilda, married to ‘a certain squire’ Thomas Isaac. She died 20 July 1353, and was buried in Dunfermline, leaving two daughters: Joanna, married to John, Lord of Lorn; and Catherine, d.s.p.
3. Margaret, who was married in 1343 to William, Earl of Sutherland, and died some time before November 1347
4. David, afterwards king
5. John, died in childhood.

(0) King Robert had several illegitimate children:

1. Sir Robert, killed at Dupplin 12 August 1332.
2. Nigel of Carrick, killed at the battle of Durham 17 October 1346.
3. Margaret, who was married to Robert Glen, and was alive 29 February 1363-4
5. Christian of Carrick

Source: THE SCOTS PEERAGE, ed. by Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol I , Edinburgh, 1906, pp. 7-8.
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Name: King Robert the Bruce of Scotland
Father: Robert de Brus
Mother: Marjory Countess of Carrick
Relation to Elizabeth II: 19th great-grandfather
House of: Bruce
Born: July 11, 1274 at Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire
Ascended to the throne: February 10, 1306 aged 31 years
Crowned: March 27, 1306 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire
Married:(1) Isabella of Mar, 1295
Married:(2) Elizabeth de Burgh, 1302
Children: Marjorie, David, John, Matlida, Margaret plus several illegitimate
Died: June 7, 1329, at Cardross, Dumbartonshire, aged 54 years, 10 months, and 26 days
Buried at: Dunfermline Abbey (body) and Melrose Abbey (heart)
Succeeded by: his son David

Source: ROYAL FAMILY HISTORY - http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=robert1
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Robert I
(11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys, Early Scots: Robert Brus), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, and eventually led Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against England. He fought successfully during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent nation and is today remembered in Scotland as a national hero.

Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobilities, he was a paternal fourth-great grandson of David I. Robert’s grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause". As Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family’s claim to the throne and took part in William Wallace’s revolt against Edward I of England. In 1298, Bruce became a Guardian of Scotland alongside his great rival for the Scottish throne, John Comyn, and William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrews. Bruce resigned as guardian in 1300 due in part to his quarrels with Comyn but chiefly because the restoration of King John seemed imminent. In 1302, he submitted to Edward I and returned to "the king’s peace". When his father died in 1304, Bruce inherited his family’s claim to the throne. In February 1306, following an argument during a meeting at Greyfriars monastery, Dumfries, Bruce killed Comyn. He was excommunicated by the Pope but absolved by Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow.

Bruce moved quickly to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306, at Scone. Edward I’s forces defeated Robert in battle, and Bruce was forced to flee into hiding in the Hebrides and Ireland before returning in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a highly successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated the Comyns and his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands from Buchan to Galloway. In 1309, he held his first parliament at St Andrews, and a series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland. At the Battle of Bannockburn in June 1314, Bruce defeated a much larger English army under Edward II, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish monarchy. The battle marked a significant turning point, and, freed from English threats, Scotland's armies could now invade northern England; Bruce launched devastating raids into Lancashire and Yorkshire. He also decided to expand his war against the English and create a second front by sending an army under his younger brother, Edward, to invade Ireland, appealing to the native Irish to rise against Edward II's rule.

Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to give up his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish magnates and nobles submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Bruce as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland’s status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Bruce as king of an independent Scotland, and in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, and peace was temporarily concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.

Robert I died on 7 June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey. Bruce's lieutenant and friend Sir James Douglas agreed to take the late King's embalmed heart on crusade to the Lord's Sepulchre in the Holy Land, but he only reached Moorish Granada. Douglas was killed in battle during the siege of Teba while fulfilling his promise. His body and the casket containing the embalmed heart were found upon the field. They were both conveyed back to Scotland by Sir William Keith of Galston.

(1) Child by Isabella of Mar

1. Marjory, born 1296, died 2 March 1316, Married in 1315 Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, by whom she had one child (Robert II of Scotland)

(2) Children by Elizabeth de Burgh

2. Margaret
, died 1346/47, Married in 1345 William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland; had son, John (1346-1361).
3. Matilda (Maud), died 1353, Married Thomas Isaac; had two daughters. Buried at Dunfermline Abbey
4. David born 5 March 1324, died 22 February 1371 Succeeded his father as King of Scots. Married (1) in 1328 Joan of England; no issue; married (2) in 1364 Margaret Drummond; no issue.
5. John, born 5 March 1324, died Before 1327, Younger twin brother of David II. Died in infancy.

Acknowledged illegitimate children by unknown mothers

Sir Robert Bruce, died 1332, Killed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor.
Walter of Odistoun, Predeceased his father.
Margaret Bruce, Married Robert Glen; alive in 1364.
Elizabeth Bruce, Married Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgie and Dupplin.
Christina of Carrick, Alive in 1329.
Sir Neil of Carrick, died 1346, Killed at the Battle of Neville's Cross

Robert died on 7 June 1329, at the Manor of Cardross, near Dumbarton. He died utterly fulfilled, in that the goal of his lifetime's struggle – untrammelled recognition of the Bruce right to the crown – had been realised, and confident that he was leaving the kingdom of Scotland safely in the hands of his most trusted lieutenant, Moray, until his infant son reached adulthood. Six days after his death, to complete his triumph still further, papal bulls were issued granting the privilege of unction at the coronation of future Kings of Scots.

Bruce's descendants include all later Scottish monarchs and all British monarchs since the Union of the Crowns in 1603. A large number of families definitely are descended from him.

Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_the_Bruce
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Notes for Isabel / Matilda (Spouse 1)
He [Donald] married Helen or Elen, daughter of llewellyn, Prince of North Wales, and widow of the Malcolm, Earl of Fife, who died in 1466. She was alive and receiving payment of her dowry from her first husband in February 1294-95. They had issue:

1. Gartnet or Gratney, who succeeded
2. Duncan, who swore fealty with his father on 28 August 1296, for lands in Perthshire.
3. Alexander, who was imprisoned in the Tower of London ...

4. Isabel, called in one place Matilda, married about 1295 to Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, afterwards King. She was the mother of Marjorie Bruce, who married Walter the High Stewart.

5. Marjory, married to John of Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl, and had issue ...

Source: THE SCOTS PEERAGE, ed. by Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol V, Edinburgh, 1906, pp. 577-8.
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Isabella of Mar
(modern Scottish Gaelic: Iseabail) (c. 1277 – 12 December 1296) was the first wife of Robert the Bruce and the grandmother of Robert II of Scotland, founder of the royal House of Stuart. She died before Robert was crowned King of Scots, and never became Queen.

She was the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and Helen (or Ellen) of Wales (1246–1295), the illegitimate daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ("the Great") Prince of Wales; she had previously been the wife of Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife. Her father was one of the seven guardians of Scotland who believed Robert Bruce to be the rightful King of Scotland. Despite the considerable risks, the Earl of Mar could foresee the advantage of the two families joining in marriage and bearing an heir to the throne, and the marriage of Isabella and Robert was arranged. Mar was the first to sign over the estates of his family to the Bruce.

Isabella was married to Robert at the age of 18 and legend has it that they were much in love. Shortly after their marriage Isabella became pregnant. She had a healthy pregnancy but she died soon after giving birth to a daughter, Marjorie Bruce in 1296. She is buried at Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire.

Robert married his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, six years later. Isabella's daughter Princess Marjorie (died 1316) married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland, and their son became Robert II of Scotland. From him descend the monarchs of the House of Stewart and the later royal families of the United Kingdom.

Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_Mar
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Notes for Elizabeth (Spouse 2)
Elizabeth de Burgh (c. 1289 – 27 October 1327) was the second wife and the only queen consort of King Robert I of Scotland.

She was born in Dunfermline, Fife in Scotland, the daughter of the powerful Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster and his wife Margarite de Burgh (died 1304). Her father was a close friend of King Edward I of England.

Elizabeth probably met Robert the Bruce, then Earl of Carrick, at the English court, and they married in 1302 at Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex, England. Elizabeth would have been about thirteen years old.
On 27 March 1306, Robert and Elizabeth were crowned as King and Queen of Scots at Scone. The coronation took place in defiance of the English claims of suzerainty over Scotland, and the new King sent Elizabeth, with other family members, to Kildrummy Castle for safety under the protection of his brother Nigel (sometimes known as Niall).

After the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Methven on 19 June 1306, Elizabeth had taken her stepdaughter Marjorie and her husband's sisters Mary and Christian to Kildrummy Castle. The English laid siege to the castle containing the royal party. The siege finally succeeded when the English bribed a blacksmith with "all the gold he could carry" to set fire to the corn store. The victors hanged, drew and quartered Nigel Bruce,along with all the men from the castle. However, the royal ladies under the escort of the Earl of Atholl had already fled.

They were taken from the sanctuary of St. Duthac at Tain by the Earl of Ross, a supporter of the Comyns, and dispatched to King Edward. He imprisoned Bruce's sister Mary and Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, in wooden cages erected on the walls of Roxburgh and Berwick castles respectively, and then sent Bruce's nine-year-old daughter Marjorie to the nunnery at Watton.

Elizabeth was held under severe conditions of house arrest in England.
The Earl of Atholl was hanged and his head displayed on London Bridge.

She was imprisoned for eight years by the English, from October 1306 to July 1308 at Burstwick-in-Holderness, Yorkshire and then transferred to Bisham Manor, Berkshire until March 1312. From there, she was moved to Windsor Castle until October 1312, Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset until March 1313, Barking Abbey, Essex until March 1314, and Rochester Castle, Kent until June 1314. After the Battle of Bannockburn, she was moved to York while prisoner exchange talks took place. At York, she had an audience with King Edward II of England. Finally, in November 1314, she was moved to Carlisle just before the exchange and her return to Scotland.

After her husband's coronation at Scone, she is quoted as having said,  “Alas, we are but king and queen of the May!” as though anticipating a defeat by Edward I.

Elizabeth had three children who reached adulthood: Matilda, Margaret, and David (the future king David II of Scotland).
Elizabeth died on 27 October 1327 at Cullen, Banffshire and is buried in Dunfermline. King Robert, her husband, died 18 months later.

The organs of Elizabeth de Burgh are said to have been buried in the parish church of Cullen after her death. Robert made an annual payment to the village in gratitude for the treatment of his wife's body and its return south for burial.

Source:  Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_de_Burgh
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Notes for Elizabeth (Spouse 2)
Elizabeth de Burgh (c. 1284 – 27 October 1327) was the second wife and the only queen consort of King Robert the Bruce.

Elizabeth was born sometime around 1284, probably in Down or Antrim in Ireland.
She was the daughter of one of the most powerful Irish nobles of the period, Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, who was a close friend and ally of Edward I of England. Not much is known about Elizabeth, despite her husband's status as one of the most famous Scottish kings and warriors. As is the case with most medieval women, records of Elizabeth are scarce, however it is clear that she was caught up in the political turmoil that unfolded between the Scottish and the English during the reign of her husband King Robert, having to move several times to keep safe and eventually being seized as a prisoner.

Elizabeth probably met Robert the Bruce, then Earl of Carrick, at the English court, and they married in 1302 at Writtle, near Chelmsford, Essex, England. Elizabeth would have been about eighteen years old, and Robert twenty eight. On 27 March 1306, Robert and Elizabeth were crowned as King and Queen of Scots at Scone. The coronation took place in defiance of the English claims of suzerainty over Scotland after the execution of Sir William Wallace. After his coronation, she is quoted as having said, “Alas, we are but king and queen of the May!” as though anticipating a defeat by Edward I.

After the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Methven on 19 June 1306, the king sent Elizabeth, his daughter Marjorie by his first marriage, his sisters Mary and Christian to Kildrummy Castle, under the protection of his brother Niall (also known as Nigel). The English laid siege to the castle containing the royal party. The siege finally succeeded when the English bribed a blacksmith with "all the gold he could carry" to set fire to the corn store. The victors hanged, drew and quartered Niall Bruce, along with all the men from the castle. However, the royal ladies under the escort of the Earl of Atholl had already fled.

They were taken from the sanctuary of St. Duthac at Tain by the Earl of Ross, a supporter of the Comyns, and dispatched to King Edward. He imprisoned Bruce's sister Mary and Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, in wooden cages erected on the walls of Roxburgh and Berwick castles respectively, and then sent Bruce's nine-year-old daughter Marjorie to the nunnery at Watton.

Elizabeth was held under severe conditions of house arrest in England. The Earl of Atholl was hanged and his head displayed on London Bridge. She was imprisoned for eight years by the English, from October 1306 to July 1308 at Burstwick-in-Holderness, Yorkshire and then transferred to Bisham Manor, Berkshire until March 1312. From there, she was moved to Windsor Castle until October 1312, Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset until March 1313, Barking Abbey, Essex until March 1314, and Rochester Castle, Kent until June 1314. After the Battle of Bannockburn, she was moved to York while prisoner exchange talks took place. At York, she had an audience with King Edward II of England. Finally, in November 1314, she was moved to Carlisle just before the exchange and her return to Scotland.

Elizabeth died on 27 October 1327 at the royal residence at Cullen, Banffshire, aged around 43, and was buried at Dunfermline Abbey, resting place of Scottish kings and queens since 1093. King Robert, her husband, died 18 months later. His body was laid to rest next to hers, interred in the very centre of the abbey beneath the high altar, in an alabaster tomb decorated with gold leaf. Fragments of the tomb still remain and can be seen in the National Museum of Scotland. The abbey was sacked in 1560 by Calvinists during the Scottish Reformation and the tomb was lost, however King Robert's coffin was rediscovered in 1819 during construction work on the new abbey and Elizabeth's coffin was rediscovered in 1917. Both were re-interred in the new abbey.

The organs of Elizabeth de Burgh were removed during the embalming process, and are said to have been buried in the parish church of Cullen after her death. A chaplainry was established at the church to celebrate mass for the queen's soul. Robert made an annual payment to the village in gratitude for the treatment of his wife's body and its return south for burial. A recent non-payment of this sum by the government was challenged and settled to the village's favour.

Elizabeth had three children who reached adulthood: Matilda, Margaret, and David (the future king David II of Scotland).

Issue:

Margaret
, born between 1315 and 1323, died 30 March 1346, in childbirth. Married William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland and had one son, John, who died aged twenty of the Black Plague.

Matilda, born 30 July 1353. Married Thomas Isak/Isaac and had two daughters, Joanna (wife of John of Argyll) and Catherine.

David, born, 5 March 1324, died 22 February 1371. King of Scots (1329 – 1372). Married Joan of The Tower, no issue.

John, born October 1327, Dunfermline Palace, Fife. Heir to the Crown of Scotland.

Source: Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_de_Burgh
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Notes for UNNAMED (Spouse 3)
(0) King Robert had several illegitimate children:

1. Sir Robert, killed at Dupplin 12 August 1332.
2. Nigel of Carrick, killed at the battle of Durham 17 October 1346.
3. Margaret, who was married to Robert Glen, and was alive 29 February 1363-4
5. Christian of Carrick

Source: THE SCOTS PEERAGE, ed. by Sir James Balfour Paul, Vol I , Edinburgh, 1906, pp. 7-8.
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Acknowledged illegitimate children by unknown mothers

Sir Robert Bruce, died 1332, Killed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor.
Walter of Odistoun, Predeceased his father.
Margaret Bruce, Married Robert Glen; alive in 1364.
Elizabeth Bruce, Married Sir Walter Oliphant of Aberdalgie and Dupplin.
Christina of Carrick, Alive in 1329.
Sir Neil of Carrick, died 1346, Killed at the Battle of Neville's Cross

Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_the_Bruce
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